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Track Routing and Optimization for Yield

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4 Author(s)
Minsik Cho ; Univ. of Texas, Austin ; Hua Xiang ; Ruchir Puri ; David Z. Pan

In this paper, we propose track routing and optimization for yield (TROY), the first track router for the optimization of yield loss due to random defects. As the probability of failure (POF), which is an integral of the critical area and the defect size distribution, strongly depends on wire ordering, sizing, and spacing, track routing can play a key role in effective wire planning for yield optimization. However, a straightforward formulation of yield-driven track routing can be shown to be integer nonlinear programming, which is a nondeterministic polynomial-time complete problem. TROY overcomes the computational complexity by combining two effective techniques, i.e., the minimum Hamiltonian path (MHP) from graph theory and the second-order cone programming (SOCP) from mathematical optimization. First, TROY performs wire ordering to minimize the critical area for short defects by finding an MHP. Then, TROY carries out optimal wire sizing/spacing through SOCP optimization based on the given wire order. Since the SOCP can be optimally solved in near linear time, TROY efficiently achieves globally optimal wire sizing/spacing for the minimal POF.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems  (Volume:27 ,  Issue: 5 )