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A Comprehensive Delay Model for CMOS CML Circuits

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2 Author(s)
Seckin, U. ; Spectra-Linear, Santa Clara, CA ; Yang, C.-K.K.

MOS-transistor-based current-mode logic (CML)-type (MCML) circuits in high-speed circuit applications often operate as low-swing analog circuits rather than fully switched digital circuits. At these high-speed operations, the effect of the finite input signal slope on the delay of MCML gates significantly increases mainly due to incomplete current steering. Hence, for such cases, the conventional RC delay model which is based on ideal step input assumption fails to track the delay of MCML circuits with errors as high as 40% when a design is optimized for high-speed. In this paper, a comprehensive delay model is proposed that accurately predicts the delay of MCML circuits for all types of operation from low-speed and fully switched to high-speed and low-swing applications by including the input slope effect (ISE) into the conventional RC delay model. Furthermore, the proposed model is extended to multilevel complex logic gates without losing the general RC delay model format. Theoretical results are compared with Spice simulations in a 0.13-mum CMOS technology. Results show that the error in delay of the proposed model is less than 20% for all practical designs. The proposed model is still sufficiently tractable to be use in back-of-envelope calculations that achieve close-to-optimum solutions without running extensive parametric simulations. In addition to the achieved accuracy and preserved simplicity, the proposed model enhances the intuitive understanding of MCML gates that simple RC delay model fails to provide.

Published in:

Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:55 ,  Issue: 9 )