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Sensor location information is a prerequisite to the utility of most sensor networks. In this paper we present a robust and low-complexity algorithm to self-localize and orient sensors in a network based on angle-of-arrival (AOA) information. The proposed non-iterative subspace-based method is robust to missing and noisy measurements and works for cases when sensor orientations are either known or unknown. We show that the computational complexity of the algorithm is O(mn2), where m is the number of measurements and n is the total number of sensors. Simulation results demonstrate that the error of the proposed subspace algorithm is only marginally greater than an iterative maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE), while the computational complexity is two orders of magnitude less. Additionally, the iterative MLE is prone to converge to local maxima in the likelihood function without accurate initialization. We illustrate that the proposed subspace method can be used to initialize the MLE and obtain near-Cramer-Rao performance for sensor localization. Finally, the scalability of the subspace algorithm is illustrated by demonstrating how clusters within a large network may be individually localized and then merged.
Date of Conference: 25-27 April 2007