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Decomposition is a basic strategy in traditional multiobjective optimization. However, it has not yet been widely used in multiobjective evolutionary optimization. This paper proposes a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition (MOEA/D). It decomposes a multiobjective optimization problem into a number of scalar optimization subproblems and optimizes them simultaneously. Each subproblem is optimized by only using information from its several neighboring subproblems, which makes MOEA/D have lower computational complexity at each generation than MOGLS and nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II). Experimental results have demonstrated that MOEA/D with simple decomposition methods outperforms or performs similarly to MOGLS and NSGA-II on multiobjective 0-1 knapsack problems and continuous multiobjective optimization problems. It has been shown that MOEA/D using objective normalization can deal with disparately-scaled objectives, and MOEA/D with an advanced decomposition method can generate a set of very evenly distributed solutions for 3-objective test instances. The ability of MOEA/D with small population, the scalability and sensitivity of MOEA/D have also been experimentally investigated in this paper.