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This paper presents a comparative study on fundamental theories of natural and artificial languages by contrasting their morphologies, syntaxes, semantics, and grammars. Formal syntaxes and semantics of natural languages are analyzed. The abstract syntaxes of English and their formal manipulations are described. A universal language processing model and the deductive grammar of English are developed toward the formalization of the universal grammar proposed in linguistics. Comparative analyses of natural and programming languages, as well as the linguistic perception on software engineering, are discussed. A wide range of applications of the deductive grammar of English have been explored in language acquisition, comprehension, generation, and processing in intelligent systems and cognitive informatics.