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Motion Analysis in SAR Images of Unfocused Objects Using Time–Frequency Methods

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4 Author(s)
P. R. Kersten ; Naval Res. Lab., Washington ; R. W. Jansen ; K. Luc ; T. L. Ainsworth

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image formation processing assumes that the scene is stationary, and to focus an object, one coherently sums a large number of independent returns. Any target motion introduces phases that distort and/or translate the target's image. Target motion produces a smear primarily in the azimuth direction of the SAR image. Time-frequency (TF) modeling is used to analyze and correct the residual phase distortions. An interactive focusing algorithm based on TF modeling demonstrates how to correct the phase and to rapidly focus the mover. This is demonstrated on two watercraft observed in a SAR image. Then, two time-frequency representations (TFRs) are applied to estimate the motion parameters of the movers or refocus them or both. The first is the short-time Fourier transform, from which a velocity profile is constructed based on the length of the smear. The second TFR is the time-frequency distribution series, which is a robust derivative of the Wigner-Ville distribution that works well in this SAR environment. The smear is a modulated chirp, from which a velocity profile is plotted and the phase corrections are integrated to focus the movers. The relationship between these two methods is discussed. Both methods show good agreement on the example.

Published in:

IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters  (Volume:4 ,  Issue: 4 )