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High Current Density induced Damage Mechanisms in Electronic Solder Joints: A State-of-the-Art Review

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5 Author(s)
M. O. Alam ; School of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, University of Greenwich, 30 Park Row, London SE10, 9LS, UK ; Chris Bailey ; B. Y. Wu ; Dan Yang
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High current density induced damages such as electromigration in the on-chip interconnection /metallization of Al or Cu has been the subject of intense study over the last 40 years. Recently, because of the increasing trend of miniaturization of the electronic packaging that encloses the chip, electromigration as well as other high current density induced damages are becoming a growing concern for off-chip interconnection where low melting point solder joints are commonly used. Before long, a huge number of publications have been explored on the electromigration issue of solder joints. However, a wide spectrum of findings might confuse electronic companies/designers. Thus, a review of the high current induced damages in solder joints is timely right this moment. We have selected 6 major phenomena to review in this paper. They are (i) electromigration (mass transfer due electron bombardment), (ii) thermomigration (mass transfer due to thermal gradient), (iii) enhanced intermetallic compound growth, (iv) enhanced current crowding, (v) enhanced under bump metallisation dissolution and (vi) high Joule heating and (vii) solder melting. the damage mechanisms under high current stressing in the tiny solder joint, mentioned in the review article, are significant roadblocks to further miniaturization of electronics. Without through understanding of these failure mechanisms by experiments coupled with mathematical modeling work, further miniaturization in electronics will be jeopardized.

Published in:

High Density packaging and Microsystem Integration, 2007. HDP '07. International Symposium on

Date of Conference:

26-28 June 2007