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The coordination of directional overcurrent relays (DOCR) is treated in this paper using particle swarm optimization (PSO), a recently proposed optimizer that utilizes the swarm behavior in searching for an optimum. PSO gained a lot of interest for its simplicity, robustness, and easy implementation. The problem of setting DOCR is a highly constrained optimization problem that has been stated and solved as a linear programming (LP) problem. To deal with such constraints a modification to the standard PSO algorithm is introduced. Three case studies are presented, and the results are compared to those of LP technique to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.