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This paper presents a novel monitoring system for oil and gas well drilling based on field bus and AI technology. The Controller Area Network (CAN) intelligent node was designed to simplify the data acquisition process. As a key part, the traditional Thermo Conductive Detector (TCD) and Flame Ionization Detector (FID) were replaced by the infrared detector which contributed greatly to reduce the size of gas monitoring module. A rule-based logging expert system was also designed to improve the drilling operation. The results of 1635 well logging have proved that this system had the characters of miniaturization, flexible configuration, and powerful function.