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The already high ratio of investment to income in rural areas is a big problem. But, the additional investment in selective underground rural distribution (URD) primary is justified where exposure to tree and storm expense is indicated. A bonus result will be found in improved service. The engineer must be ready to substitute insulated overhead construction where unusually difficult soil conditions exist' Savings in operating costs associated with ground installed secondaries, services and transformers, however, are not sufficient to warrant their installation in rural areas. However, URD, wisely applied, is a distinct improvement; economically, URD is worth the additional cost of initial installation when reasonably applied; and we cannot afford to be without a sound underground program, even in our most uneconomical service areas.