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We study the maximum throughput properties of dynamically reconfigurable optical networks having wavelength and port constraints. Using stability as the throughput performance metric, we outline the single-hop and multi-hop stability regions of the network. We describe throughput-optimal dynamic algorithms employing joint WDM reconfiguration and electronic layer routing decisions. Our approach is a generalization of the BvN decomposition technique that has been so effective at expressing any stabilizable rate matrix for input-queued switches as a convex combination of service configurations. We consider generalized decompositions for physical topologies with wavelength and port constraints. For the case of a single wavelength per optical fiber, we link the decomposition problem to a corresponding Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem. We characterize the stability region of the reconfigurable network, employing both single-hop and multi- hop routing, in terms of the RWA problem applied to the same physical topology. We derive expressions for two geometric properties of the stability region: maximum stabilizable uniform arrival rate, and maximum scaled doubly substochastic region. These geometric properties provide a measure of the performance gap between a network having a single wavelength per optical fiber and its wavelength-unconstrained version. They also provide a measure of the performance gap between algorithms employing single-hop versus multi-hop electronic routing.