By Topic

Gaussian Mean-Shift Is an EM Algorithm

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

1 Author(s)
Carreira-Perpindn, M.A. ; Dept. of Comput. Sci. & Electr. Eng., Oregon Health & Sci. Univ., Beaverton, OR

The mean-shift algorithm, based on ideas proposed by Fukunaga and Hosteller, is a hill-climbing algorithm on the density defined by a finite mixture or a kernel density estimate. Mean-shift can be used as a nonparametric clustering method and has attracted recent attention in computer vision applications such as image segmentation or tracking. We show that, when the kernel is Gaussian, mean-shift is an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm and, when the kernel is non-Gaussian, mean-shift is a generalized EM algorithm. This implies that mean-shift converges from almost any starting point and that, in general, its convergence is of linear order. For Gaussian mean-shift, we show: 1) the rate of linear convergence approaches 0 (superlinear convergence) for very narrow or very wide kernels, but is often close to 1 (thus, extremely slow) for intermediate widths and exactly 1 (sublinear convergence) for widths at which modes merge, 2) the iterates approach the mode along the local principal component of the data points from the inside of the convex hull of the data points, and 3) the convergence domains are nonconvex and can be disconnected and show fractal behavior. We suggest ways of accelerating mean-shift based on the EM interpretation

Published in:

Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:29 ,  Issue: 5 )