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HVDC Connection of Offshore Wind Farms to the Transmission System

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4 Author(s)

This paper presents a technical and economic analysis to evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of grid connecting offshore wind farms through a dc link. A first case, concerning a 100-MW wind farm, is thoroughly investigated and cases of larger wind farms (200 and 500 MW) are presented. Three different transmission solutions are compared: 150-kV ac, 400-kV ac, and high-voltage dc based on voltage sourced converters (VSC-HVDC). After a brief overview of the features of these connection solutions, the related operational aspects are evaluated. An economic assessment compares the dc connection option to the ac alternatives, taking into account the investment, operation, and maintenance costs, and the negative valorization of losses and energy not supplied. Economic assessment includes sensitivity analyses of parameters, which could impact the 100-MW wind farm: distance, component costs, dc converter reliability, and dc converter losses

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Energy Conversion, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:22 ,  Issue: 1 )