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An Electrotactile Display

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2 Author(s)
Strong, R.M. ; Department of Electrical Engineering and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass. 02139 ; Troxel, D.

An explorable electrotactile display has been constructed and tested. A thus far neglected sensation was identified and has been shown to be more useful than the more common electrotactile sensations. Exploration of the surface of the electrotactile display elicits a sensation describable as texture. Experiments have indicated that the intensity of this texture sensation is due primarily to the peak applied voltage rather than to current density as is the case for the classical electrotactile sensation. For subjects employing the texture sensation, experimental results are given for approximate thresholds and for the effect of electrode area on these thresholds. A boundary-localization measurement is offered as a measure of the usefulness of the display for textured-area presentation, and form-separation measurements are given as a measure of usefulness for line-drawing presentations. A proposed model for the mechanism producing the texture sensation is offered as a guide for future experimentation and display-engineering development.

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Man-Machine Systems, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:11 ,  Issue: 1 )