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A 2.2 W, 80 MHz superscalar RISC microprocessor

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14 Author(s)
G. Gerosa ; Motorola Inc., Austin, TX, USA ; S. Gary ; C. Dietz ; Dac Pham
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A 28 mW/MHz at 80 MHz structured-custom RISC microprocessor design is described. This 32-b implementation of the PowerPC architecture is fabricated in a 3.3 V, 0.5 μm, 4-level metal CMOS technology, resulting in 1.6 million transistors in a 7.4 mm by 11.5 mm chip size. Dual 8-kilobyte instruction and data caches coupled to a high performance 32/64-b system bus and separate execution units (float, integer, loadstore, and system units) result in peak instruction rates of three instructions per clock cycle. Low-power design techniques are used throughout the entire design, including dynamically powered down execution units. Typical power dissipation is kept under 2.2 W at 80 MHz. Three distinct levels of software-programmable, static, low-power operation-for system power management are offered, resulting in standby power dissipation from 2 mW to 350 mW. CPU to bus clock ratios of 1×, 2×, 3×, and 4× are implemented to allow control of system power while maintaining processor performance. As a result, workstation level performance is packed into a low-power, low-cost design ideal for notebooks and desktop computers

Published in:

IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits  (Volume:29 ,  Issue: 12 )