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On speaker-independent, speaker-dependent, and speaker-adaptive speech recognition

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2 Author(s)
Xuedong Huang ; Sch. of Comput. Sci., Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA, USA ; Lee, K.-F.

The DARPA Resource Management task is used as a domain for investigating the performance of speaker-independent, speaker-dependent, and speaker-adaptive speech recognition. The error rate of the speaker-independent recognition system, SPHINX, was reduced substantially by incorporating between-word triphone models additional dynamic features, and sex-dependent, semicontinuous hidden Markov models. The error rate for speaker-independent recognition was 4.3%. On speaker-dependent data, the error rate was further reduced to 2.6-1.4% with 600-2400 training sentences for each speaker. Using speaker-independent models, the authors studied speaker-adaptive recognition. Both codebooks and output distributions were considered for adaptation. It was found that speaker-adaptive systems outperform both speaker-independent and speaker-dependent systems, suggesting that the most effective system is one that begins with speaker-independent training and continues to adapt to users

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Speech and Audio Processing, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:1 ,  Issue: 2 )