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Acoustic destruction of a microcapsule having a hard plastic shell is discussed. In an ultrasonic drug delivery system, microcapsules having thin elastic shells release drugs that are contained therein when the shell is destroyed. In this paper, two subjects related to capsule destruction are discussed: the driving pulse duration for capsule destruction and the frequency dependence of capsule destruction. Optical observation of microcapsule destruction is performed with a high-speed video camera. In the case of capsule destruction by a pulse wave, the internal gas of the microcapsule cannot be ejected completely, and a portion of the internal gas remains inside the broken shell. It is found that capsule destruction by pulse waves depends on both the amplitude of the driving pressure and the pulse duration. The frequency dependence of microcapsule destruction also is investigated. In the case of capsule destruction by a low-amplitude acoustic wave, the destruction rate under the resonance condition is higher than under nonresonance conditions. By controlling the driving frequency, selective capsule destruction can be achieved.