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Interface trap (NIT) generation and recovery due to broken ≡Si-H bonds at the Si/SiO2 interface is studied during and after hot carrier injection (HCI) stress and verified by a two-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. NIT generation and recovery characteristics do not correlate with channel hot electron (HE) density distribution (verified by Monte Carlo simulations). Anode hole injection, which is triggered by HE injection into the gate poly, and valence band hole tunneling, which is triggered for thinner oxides, must be invoked to properly explain experimental results. The observed hole-induced, not electron-induced, breaking of ≡Si-H bonds during HCI stress is also consistent with that for negative bias temperature instability stress.