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This paper presents a new sensorless vector control system for high performance induction motor drives fed by a matrix converter with nonlinearity compensation and disturbance observer. The nonlinear voltage distortion that is caused by commutation delay and on-state voltage drop in switching device is corrected by a new matrix converter modeling. The lumped disturbances such as parameter variation and load disturbance of the system are estimated by the radial basis function network (RBFN). An adaptive observer is also employed to bring better responses at the low speed operation. Experimental results are shown to illustrate the performance of the proposed system.