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Three or more base stations (BS) making time-of-arrival measurements of a signal from a mobile station (MS) can locate the MS. However, when some of the measurements are from non-line-of-sight (NLOS) paths, the location errors can be very large. This paper proposes a residual test (RT) that can simultaneously determine the number of line-of-sight (LOS) BS and identify them. Then, localization can proceed with only those LOS BS. The RT works on the principle that when all measurements are LOS, the normalized residuals have a central Chi-Square distribution, versus a noncentral distribution when there is NLOS. The residuals are the squared differences between the estimates and the true position. Normalization by their variances gives a unity variance to the resultant random variables. In simulation studies, for the chosen geometry and NLOS and measurement noise errors, the RT can determine the correct number of LOS-BS over 90% of the time. For four or more BS, where there are at least three LOS-BS, the estimator has variances that are near the Cramer--Rao lower bound.
Date of Publication: Jan. 2006