By Topic

Robust and high-quality time-domain audio watermarking based on low-frequency amplitude modification

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

2 Author(s)
Wen-Nung Lie ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., Nat. Chung Cheng Univ., Chia-Yi, Taiwan ; Li-Chun Chang

This work proposes a method of embedding digital watermarks into audio signals in the time domain. The proposed algorithm exploits differential average-of-absolute-amplitude relations within each group of audio samples to represent one-bit information. The principle of low-frequency amplitude modification is employed to scale amplitudes in a group manner (unlike the sample-by-sample manner as used in pseudonoise or spread-spectrum techniques) in selected sections of samples so that the time-domain waveform envelope can be almost preserved. Besides, when the frequency-domain characteristics of the watermark signal are controlled by applying absolute hearing thresholds in the psychoacoustic model, the distortion associated with watermarking is hardly perceivable by human ears. The watermark can be blindly extracted without knowledge of the original signal. Subjective and objective tests reveal that the proposed watermarking scheme maintains high audio quality and is simultaneously highly robust to pirate attacks, including MP3 compression, low-pass filtering, amplitude scaling, time scaling, digital-to-analog/analog-to-digital reacquisition, cropping, sampling rate change, and bit resolution transformation. Security of embedded watermarks is enhanced by adopting unequal section lengths determined by a secret key.

Published in:

Multimedia, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:8 ,  Issue: 1 )