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The high-speed wheel-rail traffic system was built in the 1960's, and then the relative technology was continually innovating. At the same time, the maglev experiment lines were built in Germany and Japan. The first high-speed maglev traffic commercial railway line in the world was built in Shanghai of China in 2003. With the increasing of traffic speed, the security of traffic systems is paid more and more attention. Basing on the technology character and typical accidents of both high-speed traffic systems, the pivotal technologies of the safety systems of the two traffic systems are analyzed. The analysis shows that two traffic systems have the effective technologies to prevent the accidents.