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A combined algorithm based on the improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) and EWRLS algorithm is presented in this paper. A modified particle swarm optimization with velocity is also presented to enhance the response speed of PSO algorithm. The selection criteria of the switching threshold between the PSO and EWRLS algorithm is also given by using robust minmax estimation method. This combined algorithm solves the tracking problem of time-varying system with fast parameter changes, which is very difficult to the RLS algorithm. It is not sensitive to the noise. Its good performance is verified by simulation studies.