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Raman spectroscopy is a form of vibrational spectroscopy that is well suited to the molecular identification of a variety of analytes, including both explosives and biological agents. The technique has been gaining more widespread interest due to improvements in instrumentation, sensitivity, and its ease of use, in comparison to other techniques. In this paper, we describe recent advances in Raman spectroscopy with respect to the detection of high-energy explosives and biological materials. In particular, emphasis is placed on the exploitation of enhancement factors that overcome traditional limitations on sensitivity, namely, surface enhancement and resonance enhancement, functionalization of target analytes, and the use of novel lab-on-a-chip technology.