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In this paper, we focus on the throughput analysis, outage evaluation and optimized power allocation for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) pilot-based wireless systems subject to short-term constraints on the radiated power and equipped with a feedback-path for communicating back to the transmitter the imperfect MIMO channel estimates available at the receiver. The case of the ergodic throughput for Gaussian distributed input signals is analyzed, and the conditions for the (asymptotical) achievement of the Shannon capacity are pointed out. The main contributions of this work may be so summarized. First, we develop closed-form analytical expressions for the computation of the ergodic information throughput conveyed by the considered MIMO system for the case of ideal feedback link. Second, we present an iterative algorithm for the optimized power allocation over the transmit antennas that explicitly accounts for the imperfect MIMO channel estimates available at the receiver. Third, after relaxing the assumption of ideal feedback link, we test the sensitivity of the proposed power allocation algorithm on errors possibly introduced by the feedback channel, and then, we numerically evaluate the resulting throughput loss. Finally, we develop closed-form upper and lower bounds on the outage probability that are asymptotically tight.