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The design and evaluation of a hybrid sensor network for cane-toad monitoring

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6 Author(s)
Wen Hu ; New South Wales Univ., Sydney, NSW, Australia ; Van Nghia Tran ; Bulusu, N. ; Chun Tung Chou
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This paper investigates a wireless, acoustic sensor network application-monitoring amphibian populations in the monsoonal woodlands of northern Australia. Our goal is to use automatic recognition of animal vocalizations to census the populations of native frogs and the invasive introduced species, the cane toad. This is a challenging application because it requires high frequency acoustic sampling, complex signal processing and wide area sensing coverage. We set up two prototypes of wireless sensor networks that recognize vocalizations of up to 9 frog species found in northern Australia. Our first prototype is simple and consists of only resource-rich Stargate devices. Our second prototype is more complex and consists of a hybrid mixture of Stargates and inexpensive, resource-poor Mica2 devices operating in concert. In the hybrid system, the Mica2s are used to collect acoustic samples, and expand the sensor network coverage. The Stargates are used for resource-intensive tasks such as fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and machine learning. The hybrid system incorporates three algorithms designed to account for the sampling, processing and communication bottlenecks of the Mica2s (i) high frequency sampling, (ii) compression and noise reduction, to reduce data transmission by up to 90%, and (iii) sampling scheduling, which exploits the sensor network redundancy to increase the effective sample processing rate. We evaluate the performance of both systems over a range of scenarios, and demonstrate that the feasibility and benefits of a hybrid systems approach justify the additional system complexity.

Published in:

Information Processing in Sensor Networks, 2005. IPSN 2005. Fourth International Symposium on

Date of Conference:

15 April 2005