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A comprehensive study on the correlation between the structures and operation conditions of SiGe power HBTs, for RF and microwave power amplification, is presented. Both theoretical and experimental data prove that the operation configuration, power amplification frequency and bias voltage of SiGe power HBTs critically depend on the device heterostructure design. It is also proven that employing a heat transfer counterbalanced layout structure can effectively improve the RF power performance of SiGe power HBTs. The application prospects of SiGe HBTs for high frequency RF and microwave power amplification are projected, based on this study.