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Velocity estimation of fast moving targets using a single SAR sensor

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2 Author(s)
P. A. C. Marques ; Dept. Engenharia da Electronica e das Comunicacoes, Inst. Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Portugal ; J. M. B. Dias

A new methodology is presented to retrieve slant-range velocity estimates of moving targets inducing Doppler-shifts beyond the Nyquist limit determined by the pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The proposed approach exploits the linear dependence (not subject to PRF limitations) of the Doppler-shift with respect to the slant-range velocity, at each wavelength. Basically, we propose an algorithm to compute the skew of the two-dimensional spectral signature of a moving target. Distinctive features of this algorithm are its ability to cope with strong range migration and its efficiency from the computational point of view. By combining the developed scheme to retrieve the slant-range velocity with a methodology proposed earlier to estimate the velocity vector magnitude, the full velocity vector is unambiguously retrieved without increasing the mission PRF. The method gives effective results even when the returned echoes of the moving targets and the static ground overlap completely, provided that the moving targets signatures are digitally spotlighted and the signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) is, roughly, greater than 14 dB. The effectiveness of the method is illustrated with simulated and real data. As an example, slant-range velocities of moving objects with velocities between 6 and 12 times the Nyquist velocity are estimated with accuracy better than 3%.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems  (Volume:41 ,  Issue: 1 )