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The first experimental study of the effect of a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF) on the noise characteristics of a distributed backward-pumped Raman amplifier is reported. The PCF has a highly nonlinear Raman efficient, and a high Rayleigh scattering parameter. When an optical signal first passes through a 100-m nonlinear PCF followed by a 25-km single-mode fiber, the optical signal-to-noise ratios (OSNRs) of the amplified spontaneous emission and the double Rayleigh scattering (DRS) are improved because the high Raman gain efficiency of the PCF makes the Raman gain of the signal at the beginning of the link increase, and the signal power over the length of the transmission becomes near a constant. However, the improvement of the OSNR of DRS compared with the OSNR of amplifier spontaneous emission is limited by the large Rayleigh scattering in the PCF.