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This work characterizes electromagnetic excitation forces in interior permanent-magnet (IPM) brushless direct current (BLDC) motors and investigates their effects on noise and vibration. First, the electromagnetic excitations are classified into three sources: 1) so-called cogging torque, for which we propose an efficient technique of computation that takes into account saturation effects as a function of rotor position; 2) ripples of mutual and reluctance torque, for which we develop an equation to characterize the combination of space harmonics of inductances and flux linkages related to permanent magnets and time harmonics of current; and 3) fluctuation of attractive forces in the radial direction between the stator and rotor, for which we analyze contributions of electric currents as well as permanent magnets by the finite-element method. Then, the paper reports on an experimental investigation of influences of structural dynamic characteristics such as natural frequencies and mode shapes, as well as electromagnetic excitation forces, on noise and vibration in an IPM motor used in washing machines.
Date of Publication: Nov. 2004