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A novel adaptive fuzzy-neural sliding mode control scheme was proposed for missile control systems with a general set of uncertainties. Firstly, the effect of the uncertainties was synthesized one term in the design procedure. Then fuzzy-neural approximators were designed to approximate the uncertainty function. Considering the known information, adaptive fuzzy-neural control theory and sliding mode control were used to deal with the design problem when control coefficient matrices were unknown. This method avoids the possible singularities of the controller. The Lyapunov stability theory was used to guarantee the closed-loop stability and derive adaptive tuning rules for updating the parameters of the fuzzy-neural approximators. Finally, nonlinear 6-DOF numerical simulation results were presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.