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Following considerable research into quality-of-service-aware application programming interface design and QoS specification language development for multimedia systems, we present a survey and taxonomy of existing QoS specification languages. As computer and communication technology evolves, distributed multimedia applications are becoming ubiquitous, and quality of service (QoS) is becoming ever more integral to those applications. Because they consume so many resources (such as memory and bandwidth), multimedia applications need resource management at different layers of the communications protocol stack to ensure end-to-end service quality, and to regulate resource contention for equitable resource sharing. However, before an application can invoke any QoS-aware resource management mechanisms and policies - such as admission control, resource reservation, enforcement, and adaptation - it must specify its QoS requirements and the corresponding resource allocations. Furthermore, the application must describe how QoS should be scaled and adapted in cases of resource contention or resource scarcity during runtime. Our goal in this article is to systematically classify and compare the existing QoS specification languages that span several QoS layers with diverse properties. The provided taxonomy and the extensive analysis will give us a detailed look at the existing QoS specification languages along with their properties and relations.