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Summary form only given. We treat the linkage disequilibrium, used to discover haplotypes, candidate to explain multifactorial diseases such as diabetes or obesity, as an optimization problem where a given objective function has to be optimized. In order to determine what kind of algorithm is able to solve this problem, we first study the specificities and the structure of the problem. Results of this study show that exact algorithms are not adapted to this specific problem and lead us to the development of a parallel dedicated adaptive multipopulation genetic algorithm that is able to find several haplotypes of different sizes. After describing the biological problem, we present the dedicated genetic algorithm, its specificities, such as the use of several populations and its advanced mechanisms such as the adaptive choice of operators, random immigrants, and its parallel implementation. We give results on a real dataset.