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This paper describes the fabrication of chip-scale alkali atom vapor cells, for use in highly miniaturized atomic frequency references, using silicon micromachining and anodic bonding technology. The cells consist of silicon cavities with internal volume ranging from a few mm3 to less than 1 mm3. The cells were filled with cesium and nitrogen buffer gas either by chemical reaction of cesium chloride and barium azide, or by direct injection of elemental cesium within a controlled anaerobic environment. Cesium optical absorption spectra were obtained from the cells, and coherent population trapping resonances with linewidths of about 1 kHz were measured.
Date of Conference: 2004