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Operating as low as tens of hertz and as high as hundreds of kilohertz, new broadband electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensors have shown promise for classification of unseen buried metallic objects. The three-dimensional (3-D) and bodies-of-revolution (BOR) numerical studies reported here are designed to explain key scattering sensitivities that may either be useful in or may limit object classification capability. The target is excited either by a spatially uniform oscillating primary magnetic field or by the oscillating field from a loop antenna. The problem is formulated in terms of Poison's equation for scalar potential outside the object, where conductivity and electric field values are low and consequent conduction currents are generally negligible. The Helmholtz equation for vector potential applies inside the highly conducting and permeable object. In both regions, the electromagnetic phenomena of interest are magneto-quasi-static (MQS). The simulation algorithm uses the method of auxiliary sources (MAS), with auxiliary magnetic charges and auxiliary magnetic current elements distributed on auxiliary surfaces. These surfaces generally conform to but do not coincide with physical surfaces, providing extraordinarily efficient and accurate 3-D solutions. Comparisons to available analytical solutions and experimental data validate the solutions. The simulations and data illuminate broadband MQS scattering phenomenology for both magnetic and nonmagnetic metallic objects. Distinctive sensitivities are shown and signature effects analyzed relative to the scatterer's shape and aspect ratio, orientation, sharp points and edges, finite wall thickness in hollow bodies, and compound structure in which a geometrically complex body consists of a number of distinct sections, e.g., fins.
Geoscience and Remote Sensing, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:42 , Issue: 3 )
Date of Publication: March 2004