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Quantum search of spatial regions

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2 Author(s)
S. Aaronson ; California Univ., Berkeley, CA, USA ; A. Ambainis

Can Grover's quantum search algorithm speed up search of a physical region - for example a 2D grid of size √n x √n? The problem is that √n time seems to be needed for each query, just to move amplitude across the grid. Here we show that this problem can be surmounted, refuting a claim to the contrary by Benioff. In particular, we show how to search a d-dimensional hypercube in time 0(√n) for d ≥ 3, or 0(√n log3 n) for d = 2. More generally, we introduce a model of quantum query complexity on graphs, motivated by fundamental physical limits on information storage, particularly the holographic principle from black hole thermodynamics. Our results in this model include almost-tight upper and lower bounds for many search tasks; a generalized algorithm that works for any graph with good expansion properties, not just hypercubes; and relationships among several notions of locality for unitary matrices acting on graphs. As an application of our results, we give an 0(√n)-qubit communication protocol for the disjointness problem, which improves an upper bound of Hoyer and de Wolf and matches a lower bound of Razborov.

Published in:

Foundations of Computer Science, 2003. Proceedings. 44th Annual IEEE Symposium on

Date of Conference:

11-14 Oct. 2003