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Characterization of the operating parameters of newly developed instruments is met by the several meanings of calibration. In the commonly used form, calibration is used to verify reference values and check the graduations by performing an operational check through the measuring range. This alone can cost an appreciable portion of the sale price of the instrument or circuit board. However, a broad meaning of calibration is to fix the graduations, which requires establishment of the performance characteristics of the device. Equipment to perform the basic calibration may cost over $100, 000 while testers to establish performance run in excess of $1, 000, 000. Costs of such equipment and the time to do the tests are a necessary part of the pricing of each circuit board or instrument made.