Skip to Main Content
Many living things form groups that we consider as collective systems. Their collective behaviors are a good model for the development of useful distributed systems. We discuss the group of motile elements that is described by a simple model. The dynamics of each element is described by simple kinematics, but the group shows various types of motion. In addition, we found that the formation of the group changes by modifying rc which is an optimum distance between each element. This modification shows us to observe close-packed structure, face-centered lattice, simple lattice and double file.