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The term hardware/software codesign, coined about 10 years ago, describes a confluence of problems in integrated circuit design. By the 1990s, it became clear that microprocessor-based systems would be an important design discipline for IC designers as well. Large 16- and 32-bit microprocessors had already been used in board-level designs, and Moore's law ensured that chips would soon be large enough to include both a CPU and other subsystems. Multiple disciplines inform hardware/software codesign. Computer architecture tells us about the performance and energy consumption of single CPUs and multiprocessors. Real-time system theory helps analyze the deadline-driven performance of embedded systems. Computer-aided design assists hardware cost evaluation and design space exploration.