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This paper presents an overview of progress in the area of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) space-time coded wireless systems. After some background on the research leading to the discovery of the enormous potential of MIMO wireless links, we highlight the different classes of techniques and algorithms proposed which attempt to realize the various benefits of MIMO including spatial multiplexing and space-time coding schemes. These algorithms are often derived and analyzed under ideal independent fading conditions. We present the state of the art in channel modeling and measurements, leading to a better understanding of actual MIMO gains. Finally, the paper addresses current questions regarding the integration of MIMO links in practical wireless systems and standards.