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The central result of this paper is an analytic formula describing the packet loss probability in a buffer as a function of the length of the buffer and the probability of external packet loss. This formula makes it possible to calculate the total loss along a multi-buffer, multi-link route. Also, new types of congestion window distributions are discovered when the packet loss in the buffer is large. These are different from the usual Gaussian type single humped distributions and can help to develop a qualitative classification of window distributions.