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Reviews the technological developments in neural orthoses for the correction of upper motor neurone drop foot since 1961, when the technique was first proposed by Liberson and his co-workers. Drop foot stimulator (DFS) developments are reviewed starting with hard-wired single-channel and multichannel surface functional electrical stimulation (FES) systems, followed by implanted drop foot stimulators, and then continuing with microprocessor-based surface and implanted drop foot stimulators. The review examines the role of artificial and "natural" sensors as replacements for the foot-switch as the primary control sensor in drop foot stimulators. DFS systems incorporating real-time control of FES and completely implanted DFS systems finish the review.
Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:10 , Issue: 4 )
Date of Publication: Dec. 2002