By Topic

Apparent temperatures of smooth and rough terrain

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

2 Author(s)
Chen, S. ; The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA ; Peake, W.

The apparent temperatures of smooth and rough terrain surfaces are calculated for frequencies between 1 and 75 kMc, for angles of incidence between5degand80deg, and for observation altitudes between 2 km and 32 km. The attenuation and thermal radiation caused by the atmosphere are accounted for by an experimental model atmosphere, and the surface emissivities are based on measured complex dielectric constants (for the smooth surfaces) and measured radar return (for the rough surfaces). It is found that perpendicular polarization provides the greatest temperature contrast between rough and smooth surfaces, and that the contrast decreases as the altitude of observation increases; atf=75kMc (approximately the resonant frequency of the oxygen molecule), there is likely to be little, if any, contrast between rough and smooth surfaces.

Published in:

Antennas and Propagation, IRE Transactions on  (Volume:9 ,  Issue: 6 )