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The Ultrasonic Welding Mechanism as Applied to Aluminum-and Gold-Wire Bonding in Microelectronics

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2 Author(s)

This paper represents a review as well as an extension of previous work concerned with the mechanism of microelectronic ultrasonic welding for both aluminum and gold wires. A series of experiments was carried out to determine the mechanism of gold-to-gold ultrasonic bonding. These experiments, including lift-off pattern studies, clamped-wire studies, and bond deformation versus ultrasonic vibration amplitude studies, indicate that gold ultrasonic bonding takes place primarily by means of a deformation mechanism as opposed to a heating or sliding mechanism. This is substantially the same result previously obtained from studies on the aluminum ultrasonic bonding mechanism. Further, it is shown that a deformation mechanism also holds for other forms of solid phase microelectronic bonding. Specific examples are taken from electric discharge "tweezer welds" and from thermocompression bonds. The role of contaminant removal and certain reliability aspects of ultrasonic bonding are also discussed.

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Parts, Hybrids, and Packaging, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:13 ,  Issue: 4 )