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This survey deals with conduction mechanisms in thin films, both metals and dielectrics, in the thickness range between 10-6and 10-5cm and generally under 2-3 x 10-6cm. Conduction in metals with an island structure is discussed in terms of a thermally-activated process based on a model suggested by Frenkel. The model makes it possible to interpret the behavior qualitatively. Dielectrics exhibit a tunneling-like behavior and/or a Schottky-like behavior depending on thickness and temperature. Anomolous effects such as the negative resistance sandwich structure and gap structures with low work functions are also discussed.