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We propose a novel image classification method using a non-causal hidden Markov Gauss mixture model (HMGMM) We apply supervised learning assuming that the observation probability distribution given each class can be estimated using Gauss mixture vector quantization (GMVQ) designed using the generalized Lloyd algorithm with a minimum discrimination information (MDI) distortion. The maximum a posteriori (MAP) hidden states in an Ising model are estimated by a stochastic EM algorithm. We demonstrate that HMGMM obtains better classification than several popular methods, including CART, LVQ, causal HMM, and multiresolution HMM, in terms of Bayes risk and the spatial homogeneity of the classified objects. A heuristic solution for the number of clusters achieves a robust image classification.