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Treating risk as a "currency" has proven to be key in systematically optimizing the design of spacecraft systems. This idea has been applied in the design of individual components of spacecraft systems, and in the end-to-end design of such systems. The process, called "Defect Detection and Prevention" (DDP), its tool support, and applications, are described. The process can be summarized as determining the consequences of various risk elements (technical, programmatic, other) on the various requirements and then determining the optimal combination of approaches to reducing the risks to acceptable levels. We are now extending this process to include consideration of architectural alternatives, qualification of components, fabrication and assembly, integration and test, and mission operation. The results of applying this extended process in the pre-formulation, formulation and implementation phases of various NASA and other government agency missions will be discussed. This paper will also discuss the results of developing optimized technology development and qualification plans.