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The role of a holistic risk assessment and management process in information technology (IT), information assurance (IA), and survivable dependable systems is the subject of this paper. To address the multiple dimensions and perspectives of the risks of terrorism to cyber and interconnected physical infrastructures, hierarchical holographic modeling is introduced and is related to the risk assessment and management process. The definition of information assurance as the trust that information presented by the system is accurate and is properly represented necessitates that trust, knowledge management, organizational behavior, and other nontechnology-based considerations be addressed in the protection of IA against terrorist attacks.
Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Part A: Systems and Humans, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:32 , Issue: 2 )
Date of Publication: Mar 2002