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Extending the two-dimensional FDTD method to hybrid electromagnetic systems with active and passive lumped elements

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3 Author(s)
Wenquan Sui ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT, USA ; Christensen, Douglas A. ; Durney, C.H.

The finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) method is extended to include distributed electromagnetic systems with lumped elements (a hybrid system) and voltage and current sources. FDTD equations that include nonlinear elements like diodes and transistors are derived. Calculation of driving-point impedance is described. Comparison of FDTD calculated results with analytical results for several two-dimensional transmission-line configurations illustrates the accuracy of the method. FDTD results for a transistor model and a diode are compared with SPICE calculations. The extended FDTD method should prove useful in the design and analysis of complicated distributed systems with various active, passive, linear, and nonlinear lumped electrical components

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Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:40 ,  Issue: 4 )