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Combining belief networks and neural networks for scene segmentation

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3 Author(s)
Xiaojuan Feng ; Informatics Lab., Nat. Inst. for Biol. Stand. & Control, Potters Bar, UK ; C. K. I. Williams ; S. N. Felderhof

We are concerned with the problem of image segmentation, in which each pixel is assigned to one of a predefined finite number of labels. In Bayesian image analysis, this requires fusing together local predictions for the class labels with a prior model of label images. Following the work of Bouman and Shapiro (1994), we consider the use of tree-structured belief networks (TSBNs) as prior models. The parameters in the TSBN are trained using a maximum-likelihood objective function with the EM algorithm and the resulting model is evaluated by calculating how efficiently it codes label images. A number of authors have used Gaussian mixture models to connect the label field to the image data. We compare this approach to the scaled-likelihood method of Smyth (1994) and Morgan and Bourlard (1995), where local predictions of pixel classification from neural networks are fused with the TSBN prior. Our results show a higher performance is obtained with the neural networks. We evaluate the classification results obtained and emphasize not only the maximum a posteriori segmentation, but also the uncertainty, as evidenced e.g., by the pixelwise posterior marginal entropies. We also investigate the use of conditional maximum-likelihood training for the TSBN and find that this gives rise to improved classification performance over the ML-trained TSBN

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence  (Volume:24 ,  Issue: 4 )